Thursday, September 23, 2010

3.4 Secrets of Blood Test Reference

Physician's Notebooks 3 - - See Homepage

Update 27 November 2018: New Entry; see Shorthand for Lab Test Notation used on medical charts at the end here.

Chapter 4: Lab Test Reference Values

Tests are reported as concentration of particle in fluid sample - the weight of a chemical compound (eg, glucose) or an element atom (eg, calcium Ca) in volume of test sample, which could be whole blood (WB), blood serum (S), or blood plasma (P). Where a cell count is reported (eg, Red Blood Cell, RBC) the number of cells counted per unit volume of WB is reported.
  Until 1960, one system, Conventional Unit (CU), was worldwide. In chemical test, it reports in gram per volume, which is usually per deciliter (a tenth of a liter, 0.1 Liter, 100 ml or 100 cc, such as serum glucose 80 mg/dL, or milligram per deciliter) but occasionally the sample volume is Liter (eg, myoglobin 20 g/L, or gram per Liter). Electrolytes like potassium ion (K+) are reported as decimal Equivalent (eg, serum K+ 4 mEq/L, milliEquivalent, or one thousandth of an Equivalent per liter).
   In 1960 the International Organization for Standardization began the  “System International d’Unities” (SI, or International System of Units) Its purpose is to unitize lab test report values. All tests are reported per Liter, or “/L”, of fluid sample in mol(e) or decimal fraction of mol. Thus in SI, the serum glucose 80 mg/dL is 4.4 mMol/L (Millimol, a thousandth of a mol per liter). For electrolytes, the Equivalent, used in CU is, in SI, the mol(e).
   The SI has been adopted everywhere except USA, Japan and UK but even in those 3 countries all physicians and other scientists report in SI. So it is useful to be able to convert CU to SI.
Abbreviation, Acronym and Other Explanatory: In this listing, when normal range differs between male and female, “M” and “F” indicate gender. PMP is "postmenopausal". Certain conditions are specified for some normal tests, like time of day, fasting or not, smoker or nonsmoker, plasma or serum or whole blood sample.
   Other abbreviation: pre- (before), post- (after), ov. (ovulation), meno (menopause), U (unit), IU (International Unit), Hep (for heparin), EDTA (for added calcium anticoagulant), Ox for added oxalate anticoagulant, HbCO (hemoglobin attached to carbon monoxide, the form in which CO circulates in blood).
   Cells/mm3 is number of cells per cubic millimeter (same as “per microLiter”). Cell/L is number of cells per liter.  G/dL or g/dL is number of grams per deciliter.
The prefixes for the fractions of the basic unit (for weight Gram) are from its logs of 10. (100, or 1 is the Unit, eg, 1 Gram; 10-1, or one tenth is deci, eg, decigram; 10-2, or one hundredth is centi, eg, centigram, and so forth) Note the nano, pico and femto as 10-9 one billionth, 10-12 one trillionth and 10-15 one quadrillionth respectively.
   “Mol” is “gram molecular weight”, the weight in grams of a chemical compound equal to its molecular weight number as calculated from the sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms that make up the molecule according to its chemical formula (eg, a mol of water, or H2O, is 10 grams because it has 2 hydrogen H atoms at 1 gram per mole each and 1 oxygen O atom at 8 grams per mole). In the case where an element concentration is reported, the 1 mole of the element is its atomic mass number in grams.
   The Equivalent or Eq used only in the CU to report electrolytes equals the grams in molecular weight number (or atomic mass number for a pure element) divided by the electrical charge of the ion. So, for examples, 1 Equivalent Na+ = 23/1 grams, or 23 grams; 1 Eq Mg2+ = 24/2, or 12 grams; 1 Eq Al3+ = 27/3, or 9 grams. An equivalent of a 1+ ion is the same as a mol the ion, an equivalent of a 2+ ion is 1/2 or 0.5 mol, and of a 3+ ion, 1/3, or 0.33 mol.
In the reference values list are 1) number values of the “blood chemistries”, substances that are dissolved in the blood plasma as chemical compound like Glucose or pure element like Pb or electrolyte like sodium Na+; 2) the “blood gases”  like oxygen O2 and CO2; 3) nutritional factors including every plasma amino acid, the common nutrients, vitamin, mineral and electrolyte; 4) the toxic metals in our environment and toxic levels of chemical or medicines; 5) hormones and neurotransmitter blood levels; 6) cancer markers.
   You can use the list whenever you hear or read a blood test number in order to understandingly answer “Is it a sign of health or disease, of toxicity or deficiency; a metaphoric ticking time bomb of impending terminal illness or a hopeful hint for healthy longevity?”
   The list can be more than that.
   It allows masterful manipulation of the medical environment for brilliant benefit. Here are the bonuses.
   If you plan to self-experiment with megavitamin or meganutrient, here you get the knowledge to check your blood vitamin, blood amino acid level and blood mineral level for indication of deficiency or toxic high level. Also you can see effect of particular food or substance use or intake or behavior on particular test. For example for a month I ate three or more bananas a day for my constipation and I noted my blood test showed too high serum Triglycerides (TRG) a useful discovery not reported before. In similar way I learned that gargling with Povidone Iodine mouthwash lowers thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) to abnormal low levels and that taking calcium carbonate with vitamin D in osteoporosis dose can elevate serum Ca2+. These all could have important affects on good or bad health.
   It can be a key to self-monitoring toxic environmental chemical in you such as metals like lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), Thallium (Th) or dangerous gas pollutant like carbon monoxide CO. Or a key to genetic and other health screening (eg, blood phenylalanine to detect potential mother of preventable retarded kid, blood creatine kinase for carrier of muscular dystrophy)!
   To manipulate blood test measurement, for example, a person knowledgeable from the blood values below could use water dilution (drinking 2 liters water 30 minutes to 1 hour before blood sample) to lower test values for drug testings. Oppositely, one might produce a state of apparent disease (like diabetes mellitus by eating several hundred grams of sugar on empty stomach 1 hour before blood test). The usefulness of this reference table is you can check the effect on your blood tests ahead of actually using it for your benefit.
   In USA, a blood test requires the order of licensed physician and needs licensed lab. It is not friendly to one who wishes self-testing. But no problem for a reader of the Notebooks!  Either you find cooperative doctor or find commercial lab in telephone yellow page and discuss getting test to serve your need. All labs employ physicians who are paid to do as told. In Japan, the National Health Insurance partly pays for all tests and it is not too hard to find a friendly doctor who'll do your bidding test-wise.
Using the list: the entry starts with name, symbol and abbreviation of tested-for substance or particle, and type of blood sample and anticoagulant if required; following in brackets are CU blood test reference range or a < (less than) or > (greater than) good health or toxicity cross point. Still in the bracket is a key-in factor to convert CU to unit per vol. SI. Following examples: Amino acid Alanine – a nutritional blood test.
Alanine, P (1.87-5.88 mg/dL x 112.2 μmol/L) 
Examples: Alanine: inside brackets is the CU normal range of plasma alanine concentration, 1.87 to 5.88 mg/dL, or milligrams of alanine dissolved in one deciliter blood plasma. And if you need to convert it to SI, key your electronic calculator to x 112.2 for any mg/dL value plasma alanine and you will get SI alanine micromole per liter.
Lead, Pb, WB Hep (10-25μg/dL danger, 25-40 symps, 40-100 tox, >100 severe, x 0.048 μmol/L)
The entry gives element name and symbol and shows it is for whole blood sample with heparin anticoagulant. Note when more than 1 test value is given, a bare number is used after the first (eg, here, 10-25 μg/dL danger, 25-40 symptoms …). SI conversion factor is x 0.048 μmols per liter.
Note occasional inclusion of life-threatening warning values, for example for blood protein Albumin.
Albumin, S (age 20-60, g/dL, age 60-90, lower limit to 3.2, >age90, lower limit to 2.9, x 10 g/L for SI)
  Albumin critical life-threatening values<1.7 g/dL
First line brackets gives age-specified CU normal ranges. For SI, key your calculator to x 10 (grams per liter serum).
The lower line alerts on serum albumin below 1.7 g/dL.
SI conversion factor can be used both ways. If you have test value in CU you wish to explain to your French cousin, key-in the multiplication factor. But if tested in Europe in SI, key-in an arithmetic division by the same factor and you will have the conventional unit for USA or UK. Example, total cholesterol in Paris is 5 mMole per Liter. On your calculator, key-in: Divide by 0.026 and hit the equals sign and you get 192 mg per dL in USA: Cholesterol total TC, S (<200 mg/dL x 0.026 mmol/L)
Alphabetized List of Normal Adult Lab Values for Rapid Reference
Acetaminophen, S or P (10-30 micro-g/ml therapeutic; 4 hr after >200 toxic, x 6.6μmol/L)
Acid Phosphatase, S (M 1.5-4.5 U/L x 0.017μkat/L)
ACTH, P, EDTA (at <120 pg/ml, or 24 hr supine <85, x 0.22 pmol/L)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone a.k.a. Corticotropin, see ACTH above
Alanine, P (1.87-5.88 mg/dL x 112.2μmol/L)
Albumin, S (age 20-60, g/dL, age>60-90 lower to 3.2, >90 to 2.9, x 10 g/L)
  Albumin critical life-threatening values<1.7 g/dL
Aldolase, S (2.5-10.0 U/L x0.017μkat/L)
Aldosterone S (Ave. NaCl diet, supine 3-16 ng/dL, erect 7-30, x 0.0277 nmol/L)
Alkaline Phosphatase S (M<130 U/L, F to age 49,<100 U/L, PMP to 140, x 0.017μkat/L)
ALT Alanine aminotransferase former SGPT, S (M<45 U/L, F<34, x 0.017μkat/L)
Aluminum, Al, S or P (<5.51 μg/L, on dialysis 20-550, x 0.0371μmol/L)
Ammonia Nitrogen, P (15-45 μg/dL x 0.714μmol/L)
Amylase, S (28-100 U/L x 0.017μkat/L)
Androstenedione, S (75-205 ng/dL x 0.0349 nmol/L)
Angiotensin I, S (<25 pg/ml x 1.0 ng/L)
Angiotensin II, S (10-60 pg/ml x 1.0 ng/L)
Anion Gap, P or S [Na – (Cl + HCO3)] (7-16 mEq/L, SI mmol/L x 1.0)
Antidiuretic Hormone ADH, P, EDTA (osmolal 290 mOsm/kg, 1-7 ng/dL, SI pmol/L x .9)
Antimony, P Hep (0.014-.090 μg/dL, x 82.1 nmol/L)
αAntitrypsin, S (age 20-60, 90-200 mg/dL x 0.01 g/L)
Arginine, P (0.37-2.40 mg/dL x 57.4μmol/L)
Arsenic, Ar, WB (2-23μg/L, chron & acu poison., 100-500 & 600-9300, x 0.0133μmol/L)
Asparagine, P (0.40-0.91 mg/dL x 7.57μmol/L)
Aspartic Acid, P (<0.32 mg/dL x 75.1μmol/L)
AST Aspartate aminotransferase former SGOT, S (M<35 U/L, F<31, x 0.017μkat/L)
Beryllium Be, no blood test, 24-hr urine>20μg/L toxic x 0.111μmol/L
Bicarbonate HCO3-, S (22-29 mEq/L x 1.0 mmol/L)
Bilirubin conjugated, or direct, S (0.0 - 0.2 mg/dL x 17.1 μmol/L)
Bilirubin total, S (0-2.0 mg/dL x 17.1 μmol/L)
Biotin, WB (only SI 0.5-2.20 nmol/L normal and <0.5 deficiency)
Bleeding Time, Needle Stick Earlobe (2-7 minutes to bleeding stop)
BNP Brain Natriuretic Peptide (<50 pg/mL or same number ng/L rules out weak   heart; 50 to 200 gray area, needs echocardiogram; >200 heart failure)
Boron B, P (In USA 20-67 ng/ml; areas of China 450-659 ng/ml, x 93 nmol/L )
BUN urea nitrogen, S (6-20 mg/dL x 0.357 mmol/L)
BUN/Creatinine Ratio (10/1 to 20/1, >12 with hi BUN, acute and not end-stage renal failure)
Cadmium Cd, WB Hep (Nonsmoker 0.3-1.2μg/dL, smoke 0.6-3.9, x 8.9 nmol/L)
Caffeine, S or P EDTA or Hep (toxic > 20μg/ml x 5.15μmol/L)
Calcitonin, S or P (M<8.8, F<5.8 pg/mL, x 1.0 ng/L)
Calcium ionized Ca2+, S or P Hep (4.6-5.3 mg/dL x 0.25 mmole/L)
Calcium total Ca, S or P Hep (8.6-10.2 mg/dL x 0.25 mmole/L)
Calcium total, critical life threatening values<6 or >13.0 mg/dL
Cancer Antigen CA 15-3, S (<30U/ml x 1.0 kU/L)
Cancer Antigen CA 19-9, S (<37U/mL x 1.0 kU/L)
Cancer Antigen CA 27-29, S (<37.7 U/mL x1.0 kU/L)
Cancer Antigen CA 50, S (<14-20 U/L x 1.0 kU/L)
Cancer Antigen CA 72-4, S (<6 U/mL x 1.0 kU/L)
Cancer Antigen CA 125, S (<35 U/ml x 1.0 kU/L)
Cancer Antigen CA 242, S (<20 U/mL x 1.0 kU/L)
Cancer Antigen CA 549, S (<11 U/mL x 1.0 kU/L)
Carbohydrate Deficient Transferring (>20 mg/dL for alcoholic)
Carbon Dioxide pCO2, WB art. Hep (M 35-48; F 32-45 mm Hg, x 0.133 kPa)
 pCO2 Critical life-threatening values<20 or >70
Carbon Dioxide total, P or S (23-29 mEq/L x 1.0 mmol/L)
Carbon Dioxide total, Critical, life-threatening values<10 or >40 mEq/L
Carbon Monoxide CO, WB EDTA (Nsmoke 0.5-1.5% HbCO, smoke to 9, toxic>20, lethal>50)
Carcinoembryonic Antigen CEA, S (Nsmoke<3 ng/mL x 1.0μg/L)
β-Carotene, S (10-85μg/dL x 0.0186μmol/L)
Cerruloplasmin, P (220-400 mg/L x 0.001 g/L)
Chloride Cl-, S or P (98-107 mEq/L x 1.0 mmol/L)
Cholesterol HDL, S (M >29; F > 35 mg/dL, all ages <40 low, >59 hi, x 0.026 mmol/L)
Cholesterol LDL, S (<130 mg/dL, <100 optimal, 160-189 hi, >189 very hi, x 0.026 mmol/L)
Cholesterol total TC, S (<200 mg/dL x 0.026 mmol/L)
Chorionic Gonadotropin CG, S (Nonpreg<5 mIU/ml x 1.0 IU/L)
CG (Pregnant to wk 4, 5-100; wk 5, 200-3000; 6, 1-8 x 104; 7-14, 9-50 x 104; 15-26, 5-80 x 103; (wk 27 to 40, 3-15 x 103; one half of pregnancies detected by hi CG 1st day missed menses)
Chromium Cr, S (0.1-.2μg/L x 19.23 nmol/L)
Clot lysis at 370C (47-72 hrs)
Clot Retraction Time (Starts at 1 hour, max at 24 hrs)
Clot Time of Whole Blood (5-8 minutes)
Cobalt Co, S (0.11-.45μg/L x 16.97 nmol/L)
Cocaine, S or P Hep or EDTA (>1000 ng/mL toxic, x 3.3 nmol/L)
Codeine, S (>200 ng/mL toxic, x 3.34 nmol/L)
Copper, Cu, S (M 70-140; F 80-155μg/dL, x 0.157 μmol/L)
Copper in Erythrocyte (90-150 micro-g/cell)
Corticosterone, S ( 130-820 ng/dL, 4PM 60-220, x 0.0293 nmol/L)
Cortisol, S ( 5-23μg/dL, 4PM 3-16, <50% of ; x 27.6 nmol/L)
Creatine Kinase CK, S (M 46-171 F 34-145 U/L, x 0.017 μkat/L)
CK isoforms % total activity: CK-31 42-75%, CK-32 18-51%, CK-33 2-14%
Creatine Kinase MB cardiac muscle (<5μg/L or<4% of total CK, SI same)
Creatinine, S (M 0.62-1.10; F 0.45-.75 mg/dL, x 88.4 μmol/L)
C-Reactive Protein CRP Usual Sensitivity, S (<0.5 mg/dL, x 10 mg/L)
CRP Hi-Sensitivity for risk of heart disease, S, SI only <1 mg/L lo risk, >3 mg/L hi risk
Cyanide CN, WB Ox (NoSmoke<0.2, Smoke<0.4, Toxic>1 mg/L, x 38.5 μmol/L)
Cystine, S (0.40-1.40 mg/dL x 83.3 μmol/L
D-dimer, < or =250 ng/mL D-dimer units (DDU) (< or =0.50 mcg/mL fibrinogen equivalent units: FEU) are normal                                                                                Dehydroepiandrosterone unconju, DHEA, S (M 180-1250 ng/dL, F 3-9.8; x 0.0347 nmol/L)
11-Deoxycortisol, S (12-158 ng/dL x 0.0289 nmol/L)
Erythrocyte (Blood) Sedimentation Rate, ESR or BSR, WB (M 0-15, F 0-20 mm/hr)
Erythropoietin, P (5-36 mU/mL or U/L)
Estradiol E2, S (F early foll 10-150, late foll 40-350, midcyc150-750, lut 30-450, PMP<21    pg/ml) E2 SI X 3.69 pmol/L
Estrogen, total S (Follicular phase 60-200 pg/ml, Luteal 160-400, PMP<130
Ethanol, WB Ox (50-100 impaired, >100 dead drunk, >400 mg/dL lethal, x 0.217 mmol/L)
Ferritin, S (M 20-250; F 10-120 ng/ml, x 1.0μg/L)
αFetoprotein AFP, S (early cancer marker>10-20 ng/ml, pregnant>75 abn; x 1.0μg/L)
Fibrinogen P (200-400 mg/dL; critical life-threatening <100 or >800 mg/dL, x 0.01 g/L)
Fluoride, S (0.2-3.2 mg/dL x 52.6 μmol/L)
Folate, S (2.6-12.2μg/L, SI x 2.265 nmol/L)
Folate in erythrocyte, WB (103-411μg/L packed red blood cells, x 2.265 nmol/L)
Follitropin or FSH, S (<17 mIU/mL, old age>20; x 1.0 IU/L)
Gastrin S (25-90 pg/ml, x 1.0 ng/L)
Glucagon, P Hep or EDTA (70-180 ng/L x 1.0 ng/L)
Glucose, Serum fast(74-100, age >60 <115, age>90 <121 mg/dL, x 0.055 mmol/L)
  Glucose critical life-threatening values for hypoglycemia<40
Glucose, Whole Blood, Heparinized (65-95 mg/dL); spinal fl (40-70); 2 hrs + eat (120)
Glucose Tolerance Test Oral (Fast 70-105 [DM >140]; 1 hr 120-170 [DM 200]; 90 min 100-140 [DM 200]; 2 hr 70-120 [DM 140])
Glutamic Acid, P (<33.8 mg/dL x 68.0 μmol/L)
Glutamine, P (5.78-10.38 mg/dL x 68.5 μmol/L)
γ-Glutamyltransferase, S (M<55; F<38 U/L, x 0.017 μkat/L)
Glycosylated hemoglobn diabetes Hb A1c, WB EDTA, Hep or Ox (4-6 % total Hb, x 1.0 Hb fraction)
Glycerol, free, S (0.29-1.72 mg/dL x 0.11 mmol/L)
Glycine, P (0.90-4.16 mg/dL x 133.3μmol/L)
Growth Hormone, S (M to 4 ng/ml, F to 18; >age 60, 1-9, F to 16; x 1.0μg/L)
Haptoglobin, S (30-200 mg/dL x 0.01 g/L)
Hematocrit, WB (M 39-49%; F 35-45% of volume WB, x 0.01, 0.39-0.49 fraction of WB)
Hemoglobin WB (M 13.5-17.5, F 12.0-16.0 g/dL, x 0.155 mmol/L)
Hemoglobin A1C (Norm 4-5.6%, risk diabetes 5.7-6.4%, diabetes => 6.5%, goal for diabetic<7%)
Histidine, P (0.50-1.66 mg/dL x 64.5 μmol/L)
Homocysteine, S, P (folate suppl diet<12 μmol/L, no Folate <15, SI same as CU)
17-Hydroxyprogesterone, S (F foll phase 15-70, luteal 35-290, preg 200-1200, PMP<70 ng/dL)
Hydroxyproline, P (<0.55 mg/dL x 76.3 μmol/L)
Immunoglobulin A, S (70-400 mg/dL x 0.01 g/L)
Immunoglobulin D, S (0-8 mg/dL x 0.01 g/L)
Immunoglobulin E, S (0-380 mg/dL x 1.0 g/L)
Immunoglobulin G, S (700-1600 mg/dL x 0.01 g/L)
Immunoglobulin M, S (40-230 mg/dL x 0.01 pmol/L)
INR, international normalized ratio, normal, no medication 1; ideal  2-3 (Also    see Pro time INR below)
Insulin, S (2-25 μIU/ml x 6.95 pmol/L)
Iron, S (M 65-175; F 50-170 μg/dL, x 0.178 μmol/L)
Iron-Binding Capacity, S (250-450μg/dL x 0.178 μmol/L)
Iron Saturation, S (M 20-50%, F 15-50%, x 0.01 fraction)
Isoleucine, P (5-24 mg/dL x 76.3μmol/L)
L-lactate, WB Hep at bed rest (venous 5-12, arterial 3-7 mg/dL, x 0.111 mmol/L)
Lactate Dehydrogenase LDH, S (180-360 U/L x 0.017 μkat/L)
Lead, Pb, WB Hep (10-25 microgram/dL danger,25-40 symps, 40-100 tox, >100μ/dL severe, x 0.048μmol/L)
Leucine, P (0.98-2.29 mg/dL x 76.3 μmol/L)
Lipase, S (<38 U/L x 0.017μkat/L)
Lithium Li, S (Therapeutic 0.6-1.2 ng/ml, toxic>2.0, x 0.144μmol/L)
Luteinizing hormone LH (M 1-8 mU/ml, aged M or F >25; x 1.0 U/L)LH in Fertile Woman (follicular 1.7-15, midcycle ovulation 22-57, luteal 1-16, PMP 14-52)
Lysine, P (1.21-3.47 mg/dL x 68.5 μmol/L)
αMacroglobulin, S (130-300 mg/dL x 0.01 g/L)
Magnesium Mg, S 1.6-2.6 mg/dL x 0.4114 mmol/L)
Manganese Mn, WB Hep (5-13μg/L and serum sample 0.5-1.3, x 18.0 nmol/L)
MeperidineS or P Hep or EDTA (Therap 0.4 to 0.7μg/ml, Toxic>1, x 4.04 μmol/L)
Mercury Hg, WB EDTA (0.6-59μg/L x 4.99 nmol/L)
Methanol, WB, F-/Ox (<1.5, toxic>200 mg/L, x 0.0312 mmol/L)
Methionine, P (0.09-0.60 mg/dL x 67.7 μmol/L)
βMicroglobulin, S (0.21 mg/dL x 10 mg/L)
Molybdenum Mo, S (0.3-3.0μg/dL x 10.42 nmol/L)
Morphine, S or P Hep or EDTA (Therap 10-80 ng/ml, Toxic>200, x 3.50 nmol/L)
Myoglobin,S, SI only, 19-92 g/L
Nickel Ni, S or P Hep (0.14-1.0 or WB 1.o-28.0μg/L x 17 nmol/L)
Osmolality of Blood (275-295 mOsmol/Kg body weight)
Oxalate, S (1-2.4 μg/L; in ethylene glycol poisoning>20, x 11.25μmol/L)
Oxycodone, S (Therap10-100 ng/ml, Toxic>200, x 3.17 nmol/L)
Oxygen arterial sat SaO2 or SpO2 by finger clip (95-98% in room air, x 0.01 fraction)
Oxygen, partial pressure, pO2, WB Hep (83-108 mm Hg, x 0.13 kPa)
  pO2 Critical life-threatening values<40
Pantothenic Acid, WB (344-583μg/L x 0.0046μmol/L)
Parathyroid Hormone PTH intact, S (10-65 pg/ml x 1.0 ng/L)
Partial Thromboplastin Time, see Thromboplastin Time
Pentacozine, S or P (Therap. 0.05-0.2μg/ml, Toxic>1, x 7.57 μmol/L)
pH of Blood at 370C, WB arterial (ages 60 to 90 7.31-7.42, >age 90 7.26-7.43)
  pH Critical life-threatening value<7.2 or >7.6
Phenylalanine, WB on filter (<2.1 mg/dL x 60.5μmol/L), P (0.8-1.8 mg/dL)
Phosphatase, acid (See Acid Phosphatase above)
Phosphatase, alkaline, S (M 53-128, F 42-100 U/L, x 0.017 μkat/L)
Phosphatase, alk, bone spec by imunoab S (M 15.0-43, W PMP 11.6-29.6 U/L, x 0.017 μkat/L)
Phosphorus inorganic (Phosphate), IP, S, P Hep (2.5-4.5 mg/dL x 0.322 mmol/L)
Platelet Count , WB Hep (150-450 x 103/μL, or cu. mm, SI same numbers x 109/L)
  Platelets critical life-threatening values <10 or >1000 (x 103/μL,)
Potassium K+, S (3.5-5.1 mEq/L); P Hep (M 3.5-4.5, F 3.4-4.4 mEq/L x 1.0 mmol/L)
   Potassium critical life-threatening values<2.8 or >6.2 mEq/L
Progesterone S (M 13-97, F foll 15-70, luteal 200-2500 ng/dL, x 0.0318 nmol/L)
Prolactin, S (M<10, F 3.6-12 ng/mL, x 1.0 μg/L)
Proline, P (1.17-3.86 mg/dL x 86.9μmol/L)
Prostate Spec Antig PSA, S (age 40-49 <3, 50-59 <4, 60-69 <5, 70-79 <7 ng/mL, x 1.0μg/L)
Protein Electrophoresis, S  (Albumin 3.5-5, α1 Globulin 0.1-0.3, α2 Globulin 0.6-1.0, βGlobulin 0.7-1.1, γGlobulin 0.8-1.6 g/L)
Protein total, S (6.4-8.3 g/dL x 10 g/L)
Prothrombin Time 2-stage modified, WB (18-22 seconds; critical upper 30 sec)
Pro(thrombin) Time INR, WB (Normal 1, Ideal Anticoagulation 2-3, Bleed Risk>3.5)
Red Blood Cell (RBC) Count, WB Hep (M 4.3-5.7; F 3.8-5.1x106 cells/μL, x 1012/L)
Red Blood Cell Index MCH (26-34 pg/cell x 0.0154 fmol/cell); MCHC (31-37% Hgb/cell x    0.155 mmole Hgb/cell); MCV (80-100 femtoliter, or fL SI same value & unit)
Renin normal diet, supine, S (0.2-1.6 ng/ml/hr x 1.0 μg/L/hr)
Reticulocyte Count, WB Hep (0.5-1.5% of total RBC x 0.01 fraction)
Riboflavin, S (4-24μg/dL), Erythrocyte, or RBC 10-50μg/dL, x 26.6 nmol/L
Salicylates Aspirin, S or P (Toxic>300μg/mL x 0.00727 mmol/L)
Selenium, S (63-160), WB (58-234 mg/dL) x 0.0127μmol/L
Serine, P (0.68-2.03 x 95.2 μmol/L)
Sodium Na, S (136-145 mEq/L x 1.0 mmol/L)
Testosterone Free, S (age 18-70 M 50-210 pg/mL, age 15-70 F 1.0-8.5, x3.47 pmol/L)
Testosterone Total, S (age 18-70 M 260-1000 ng/dL, age 15-70 Fx 0.0347 nmol/L)
Thallium, WB Hep (<5μg/L, toxic >0.1 mg/L, x 4.89 nmol/L)
Thiocyanate SCN, S (Nonsmoker<0.4, Smoker<1.2 mg/dL, x 172.4 μmol/L)
Threonine, P (0.94-2.30 mg/dL x 84.0 nmol/L)
(Activated Partial) Thromboplastin Time (A)PTT (25-35 seconds; life-threatening >78  sec)
Thyroglobulin, S (3-42 ng/ml x 1.0 μg/L)
Thyroglobulin Antibodies (<)
Thyrotropin TSH, S (ages 21-54 <4.3μIU/ml, age>55<9.0, x 1.0 mIU/L)
Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone or TRH (5-60 pg/ml; SI same number in ng/L)
ThyroxinT4, S (M 4.6-10.5μg/dL, F 5.5-11, x 12.9 nmol/L)
Thyroxin Free or FT4, S (0.8-2.7 ng/dL x 12.9 pmol/L)
Thyroxin Free Index, S (4.2-13μg/dL x12.9 nmol/L)
Thyroxin Binding Globulin TBG, S (M 1.2-2.5, F 1.4-3.0, on oral contraceptive 1.5-5.5  ng/dL)
Total Iron Binding Capacity TIBC (see Iron-Binding Capacity)
Transcortin, S (M 18.8-25.2 mg/L, F 14.9-22.9, x 17.18 mmol/L)
Transferrin, S (200-360 mg/dL, >age 60, 160-340, x 0.01 g/L)
Transketolase erythrocyte (0.75-1.30 U/g Hb x 64.53 kU/mol Hb)
Triglycerides, S (12-hr fast, rec. healthy normal<150 mg/dL x 0.0113 mmol/L)
Tri-iodothyronine Free FT3, S (210-440 pg/dL x 0.0154 pmol/L)
Tri-iodothyronine Total T3, S (age 20-50,70-204 ng/dL, age 50-90, 40-181; x 0.0154  nmol/L)
Tri-iodothryronine resin Uptake (24-34%)
Troponin-I, S in SI only (<10 micro-g/L), Troponin-T 0-0.1 micro-g/L)
Tryptophan, P (0.41-1.94 mg/dL x 49.0 μmol/L)
Tyrosine, P (0.40-1.58 mg/dL x 55.2 mmol/L)
Urea nitrogen, see BUN above
Uric Acid, S (M 4.4-7.6 F 2.3-6.6 mg/dL, x 0.059 mmol/L)
Valine, P (1.65-3.71 mg/dL x 85.5 μmol/L)
Vitamin A, S (30-80 μg/dL x 0.0349 μmol/L)
Vitamin B1 Thiamin, WB (90-140 nmol/L x 1.0 nmol/L), Erythrocyte (289-590 ng/g Hb)
Vitamin B2, see Riboflavin above
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, P EDTA (5-30 ng/ml, deficiency<5, x 4.046 nmol/L)
Vitamin B12, S (>200 pg/ml, deficiency<150 ng/L x 0.733 pmol/L)
Vitamin C Ascorbate, S (0.4-1.5 mg/dL, deficiency<0.2), Leucocyte (20-33μg/108 cell,  def<10)
Vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxy, S (15-60 pg/ml x 2.4 pmol/L)
Vitamin D3, 25-hydroxy (Summer 15-80 ng/ml, Winter 14-42 x 2.50 nmol/L)
Vitamin E Tocopherols, S (0.5-1.8 mg/dL x 23.2μmol/L)
Vitamin K, S (0.13-1.19 ng/mL x 2.22 nmol/L)
White Blood Cell, μL for SI same number x 106/L)
 (4,500-11,000 cells/
WBC Diff (%Neutro 54-62, Band 3-5, Lymph 23-33, Mono 3-7, Eo 1-3, Baso 0-1)
Widal Test for + typhoid fever diagnosis, S (O agglutinin titer 1:80 or>4x rise)
Zinc Zn, S(80-120μg/dL, deficiency<30, x 0.153 μmole/L
If you do not find what you want, let me know. Dr Ed
Flash:  Here is the secret to the Shorthand for Lab Tests used by medical interns on patient charts kindly supplied by Dr Cecile Yama

Baseball Box Score System:  Blood chems. Write with numbers only

Na+ / Cl-      /        BUN
  -----------------------------  GLU
K+ / HCO3  /    Creat.

Also used for bone metabolism, liver enzyme, TP & Alb and bilirubin as in

Ca   TP   AST   LDH
IP   Alb   ALT   Alk PO4

The Tic-Tac-Toe System for CBC. Numbers only

WBC Count                 Platelet Count

Also used for Albumin, Alk. Po4, AST and ALT liver enzymes
AST                                              ALT
                    Alk PO4 ase

The Trilateral System for Bone Metabolism Chems: Ca,Mg, Inorg. Phosphorus
                   Ca          /Mg
Also used for anticoagulation disorder tests

          Prothrombin Time (PT)

Thank you much, Drs Cecile, and best wishes for your medical career.
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